The latest key business cycle indicators for Spain include encouraging signs of improvement. However, there are also ominous developments suggesting tougher economic times ahead. Examples are falling business and consumer confidence scores as well as plummeting building permits in the Kingdom of Spain.
Spain’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on a Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) basis did grow in October 2019 increasing at a respectable annual rate of 4%. Spain’s economy is relatively close to the world average expansion of 4.7% at October 2019 from one year earlier.
Considering prior economic history, business cycle slowdowns typically happen within roughly 8 to 16 months from a peak in a country’s GDP.
GDP tracks a long-term growth trend via business cycles of growth or recession that repeat approximately every 5 years or so, albeit that no two business cycles mirror the same duration or size. America’s National Bureau of Economic Research states that there were 33 business cycles from 1854 to 2009.
Also, cyclical indicators are erratic with multiple major influences. Even more confusing is the fact that no consensus exists for which indicators universally trigger business cycles in all cases.
To impose some structure on this chaos, The Economist organizes its benchmarks into 3 critical categories: leading indicators that turn in advance of a cycle change; coincident indicators that define when the overall business cycle turns; and lagging indicators that top out following a business cycle.
Spain’s Leading Business Cycle Indicators
Spain’s prime lending rate has bottomed out at 0%. Two of the other selected leading indicators below deteriorated over the 12 months representing the latest reporting period. Building permits in Spain slumped by over a third. Similarly, psychological metrics for business and consumer confidence dropped year over year.
On the other hand, retail sales and new car sales posted better scores for the Spanish economy.
The Economist estimates that an economy hits its highest level about 8 to 16 months after business and consumer confidence starts to drop. There are shorter timeframes in advance of an economy’s GDP peak for slowdowns in car sales (6 months) and building permits (2 to 3 months).
- Interest rates: 0% at Dec. 2019 (same as one year earlier)
- Business confidence: 100.2722 points at Nov. 2019 (down -0.42% from 100.6957)
- Building permits: 1,453 at Jul. 2019 (down -35.1% from 1,963)
- Consumer confidence: 100.194 at Nov. 2019 (down -0.53% from 100.7237)
- Retail sales: Up 2.72% at Nov. 2019 (1.87% higher than up 0.85%)
- New car sales: 105,853 vehicles at Dec. 2019 (up 6.6% from 98,867)
Business confidence is an indicator based on opinion surveys revealing how pessimistically or optimistically business managers perceive their companies’ future potential and therefore can anticipate turning points in economic activity. In contrast, consumer confidence measures public opinions on standardized questions about household finances, a country’s economy in general as well as plans for major purchases on durable products lasting over a year or buying a home or an automobile.
Building permits mean official authorizations required before new building construction can proceed. Building permits are a leading macroeconomic indicator for both country and global business cycles. Typically, construction work starts immediately after a building permit is granted.
Retail sales refers to an aggregate measure of the percentage change in the retail sales index against the same month in the prior year. It measures consumer demand for finished goods and is considered a major macroeconomic indicator of whether an economy is moving towards contraction or expansion. Retail sales focus on volume changes only and exclude price level movements.
A country’s passenger car sales metric specifies the number of new passenger cars sold irrespective of price.
Spain’s Coincident Business Cycle Indicators
Percent changes in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on a Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) basis are much-scrutinized headline numbers that define whether an economy is contracting or expanding. That’s because year-over-year GDP changes coincide with and thus signal the start of a recession or boom period.
The latest GDP on a PPP basis statistics reveal that the Spain’s economic growth is modest.
- GDP: US$1.941 trillion at Oct. 2019 (up 4% from $1.866 trillion)
- GDP per capita: $41,592 at Oct. 2019 (up 3.5% from $40,172)
Please note that Spain is the world’s 15th biggest economy. Its share of the world’s overall GDP of $141.860 trillion was 1.4% at October 2019, same as one year earlier.
In addition, Spain’s GDP per capita income of $41,592 is about 2.3 times greater than the global average GDP per person of $18,391 as of October 2019.
Spain’s Lagging Business Cycle Indicators
Spain’s critical capital investment to GDP ratio improved by 0.3% from 2018 to 2019. Other key lagging indicators also suggest positive change. The unemployment rate in Spain declined from 2018 to 2019, albeit remaining at a concerning double-digit level while Spain’s inflation rate remains under control.
Usually capital investment shadows GDP peaks and valleys via a 12-month delay. Both inflation and unemployment accelerate about 6 months after GDP reaches its maximum growth.
- Capital investment to GDP ratio: 22.217% in 2019 (up 0.29% from 21.927%)
- Unemployment rate: 13.941% in 2019 (down -1.314% from 15.255%)
- Inflation rate: 0.684% in 2019 (down -0.99% from 1.675%)
The ratio of capital investment to GDP is a lagging but future planning-oriented indicator. It records the value that a country spends on capital development and infrastructure projects divided by its overall GDP output on a PPP basis.
Unemployment rate is a percentage based on a country’s total labor force, not its full population. It is a critical metric since many mortgage holders experience severe difficulties paying their debt obligations once they become jobless.
Inflation rate documents the percentage change in average consumer prices in a country over a one-year period, and measures cost-of-living.
Research Reference Materials:
Forbes, Recession Is Overdue By 4.5 Years, Here’s How To Prepare. Accessed on January 15, 2020
MarkLines Automotive Industry Portal, Spain Flash report, sales volume, 2019. Accessed on January 15, 2020
National Bureau of Economic Research, US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions. Accessed on January 15, 2020
The Economist, Guide to Economic Indicators: Making Sense of Economics (7th Edition). Accessed on January 15, 2020
Trading Economics, Spain Chartered Banks Prime Lending Rate. Accessed on January 15, 2020
Wikipedia, Consumer confidence index. Accessed on January 15, 2020